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New Study Shows Effects of Obesity on Knee Dislocations

Article Found on News_Medical.net

A new study of more than 19,000 knee dislocation cases in the U.S. between 2000 and 2012 provides a painful indication of how the nation’s obesity epidemic is changing the risk, severity, and cost of a traumatic injury.

“Obesity greatly increases the complications and costs of care,” said lead author Dr. Joey Johnson, orthopedic trauma fellow at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and a physician at Rhode Island Hospital. “As the rate of obesity increases, the rate of knee dislocations increases. The total number of patients who are obese is increasing, so we are seeing more of these problems.”

Addressing obesity, said co-author Dr. Christopher Born, a professor of orthopedics at Brown, could therefore help reverse the trends in the data reported in the Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma. Read more

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Your bones affect your appetite — and your metabolism!

Article Found on ScienceDaily

Your skeleton is much more than the structure supporting your muscles and other tissues. It produces hormones, too. And Mathieu Ferron knows a lot about it. The researcher at the Montreal Clinical Research Institute (IRCM) and professor at Université de Montréal’s Faculty of Medicine has spent the last decade studying a hormone called osteocalcin. Produced by our bones, osteocalcin affects how we metabolize sugar and fat.

In a recent paper in The Journal of Clinical Investigation, Ferron’s team unveiled a new piece of the puzzle that explains how osteocalcin works. The discovery may someday open the door to new ways of preventing type 2 diabetes and obesity. Read more

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How Height Happens: Hundreds of Genetic ‘Switches’ That Affect Height

Article Found on ScienceDaily

It’s been understood for decades that a host of factors — everything from pre- and post-natal health, nutrition, and genetics — play a role in determining height, but efforts to untangle the complex web of factors that contribute to height have long been stymied.

That picture, however, is becoming clearer, thanks to the work of Harvard scientists.

Led by Associate Professor of Human Evolutionary Biology Terence D. Capellini, a team of researchers discovered hundreds of genetic “switches” that have an influence on height and performed functional tests that demonstrated precisely how one such switch alters the function of a key gene involved in height differences. The study is described in a December 5 paper published in eLife.

“Large genome-wide association studies on upwards of 250,000 people found about 700 genetic regions associated with height,” Capellini said. “But within each region there could be many single DNA variants linked together, so there are potentially tens of thousands of variants spanning those regions. The question is how do you whittle that number down to those specific variants that influence height?” Read more

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Could Vitamin D Help to Keep Rheumatoid Arthritis at Bay?

Article by Caterine Paddock, Phd | Found on MedicalNewsToday

After studying immune cells taken from the joints of people with rheumatoid arthritis, scientists have found that once the disease sets in, some types of cell lose their sensitivity to vitamin D.

The team — which comprised researchers from University College London and the University of Birmingham, both in the United Kingdom — reports the new findings in the Journal of Autoimmunity. Read more

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Bad Break: Osteoporosis-Related Bone Fractures Linked to Air Pollution

Article Found on ScienceDaily

Exposure to air pollution is associated with osteoporosis-related loss of bone mineral density and risk of bone fractures, according to a new study by researchers at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health. Their findings are published in The Lancet Planetary Health.

The researchers are the first to document high rates of hospital admissions for bone fractures in communities with elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM2.5), a component of air pollution, with risk of bone fracture admissions greatest in low-income communities. The findings, from a study of osteoporosis-related fracture hospital admissions among 9.2 million Medicare enrollees in the Northeast/Mid-Atlantic between 2003-2010, suggest that even a small increase in PM2.5 concentrations would lead to an increase in bone fractures in older adults. Read more

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If You Tear a Knee Ligament, Arthritis Is Likely to Follow in 10 Years

Article by Gina Kolata | Found on NY Times

When Jason Lalli tore his left anterior cruciate ligament at age 26, he thought he would be fine as soon as he had his knee repaired. As a soccer player who competed through college and then on recreational teams, he knew that A.C.L. injuries could be debilitating but also that orthopedists could fix them.

He figured that he would miss a season, but that he could play and coach the game he loved for the rest of his life.

Four years later, his knee began to ache, and the pain became more constant over time, nagging almost “like a toothache,” he said. Within about another year, Lalli’s doctor did more work on the knee and gave him bad news: He had arthritis. Read more

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Rheumatoid Arthritis and Gum Disease

Article Found by Carol Eustice | Found on VeryWell

Starting with childhood, you have been taught to take care of your teeth. Everyone knows about the importance of having regular dental check-ups. Read more

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Foot pain? New study says look at hip and knee for complete diagnosis

Article Found on ScienceDaily

A study by researchers at Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) and Harvard Medical School suggests new guidelines may be in order for evaluating and treating lower extremity pain. Investigators set out to determine if there was a relation between foot pain and lower extremity joint pain, and they found a significant association between foot pain and knee or hip pain. Read more

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Osteoporosis: Biology behind age-related bone loss revealed

Researchers have mapped a cell mechanism that plays a key role in age-related bone loss. They suggest that the results not only shed light on the biology of osteoporosis but should also help to develop new drugs to treat the disease.

In the journal PNAS, scientists from both the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Zhejiang University in China explain how a protein called Cbf-beta is important for controlling the rate at which new bone cells replace old ones.

Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become weak and brittle, increasing the risk of fractures. Bone is a living tissue that is constantly regenerating, and the body maintains a balance – called homeostasis – between the creation of new bone cells and the removal of old cells.

As we age, the rate at which new bone replaces old or damaged bone slows down and bone density gradually diminishes. But if this rate slows too much, it can lead to osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis is a big global health problem and is more common in women than in men. Estimates suggest that around 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men over the age of 50 experience bone fractures due to osteoporosis.

In women over the age of 45, the disease accounts for more days spent in hospital than diabetesheart attack, and breast cancer.

In the United States, low bone mass and osteoporosis are thought to affect over half (55 percent) of people aged 50 and older.

Progenitor cells

Progenitor cells are immature cells that stand in reserve until they receive genetic instructions from transcription factors that tell them which type of cell to become. In the case of bone tissue, the progenitor cells are bone marrow “mesenchymal stem cells.”

Depending on the instructions they receive, the mesenchymal stem cells can mature into: bone-producing cells called osteoblasts; cartilage-producing cells, or chondrocytes; and adipocytes, or fat cells.

Until now, it was not clear what was controlling the direction of maturity of the progenitor cells so as to maintain the delicate equilibrium or homeostasis of bone formation.

When they investigated the transcription factors controlling the direction of maturity, the team found that a protein called core-binding factor subunit beta (Cbf-beta) was vital for switching destinations between bone-producing cell and fat cell.

Cbf-beta plays key role

The team found that all three groups of mice developed severe osteoporosis and accumulated fats cells in their bone marrow. The pattern was similar to that seen in age-related bone loss.

They also found increased expression of fat cell genes in the progenitor cells – that is, the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells – and bone cells of the skulls of mice lacking Cbf-beta.

Further investigation showed that when Cbf-beta activates a signal inside a type of cell known as Wnt10b/beta-catenin, it blocks expression of the gene that directs the progenitor cells to mature into fat cells. In other words, it inhibits the “adipogenesis regulatory gene.”

The team also found that Cbf-beta drives progenitor cells to become bone-producing cells through another type of Wnt signal sent to nearby cells: the “Wnt paracrine pathway.”

The researchers hope that their mapping will improve understanding of the role that Cbf-beta plays in maintaining bone, especially as we age.

The insights resulting from this study will fill an important knowledge gap and may facilitate the development of novel bone loss therapeutics that minimize the adverse side effects on bone homeostasis.”

New Mexico Orthopaedics is a multi-disciplinary orthopedic clinic located in Albuquerque New Mexico. We have multiple physical therapy clinics located throughout the Albuquerque metro area.

New Mexico Orthopaedics offers a full spectrum of services related to orthopedic care and our expertise ranges from acute conditions such as sports injuries and fractures to prolonged, chronic care diagnoses, including total joint replacement and spinal disorders.

Because our team of highly-trained physicians specialize in various aspects of the musculoskeletal system, our practice has the capacity to treat any orthopedic condition, and offer related support services, such as physical therapy, WorkLink and much more.

If you need orthopedic care in Albuquerque New Mexico contact New Mexico Orthopaedics at 505-724-4300.

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Collagen in Cartilage Tissues Behaves Like Liquid Crystals in a Smart Phone Screen

Found on MedicalNewsToday

Cartilage in our joints contains collagen which behaves a bit like the liquid crystals on a smart phone screen, according to researchers at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL).

The collagen changes its crystallinity in response to physical forces, so the ordered arrangement in collagen molecules of the cartilage in our knees may be flipping from one structural state to another with every step we take. Read more