Rotator Cuff and Shoulder Conditioning Program

Rotator Cuff and Shoulder Conditioning Program

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After an injury or surgery, an exercise conditioning program will help you return to daily activities and enjoy a more active, healthy lifestyle. Following a well-structured conditioning program will also help you return to sports and other recreational activities.This is a general conditioning program that provides a wide range of exercises. To ensure that the program is safe and effective for you, it should be performed under your doctor’s supervision. Talk to your doctor or physical therapist about which exercises will best help you meet your rehabilitation goals.Strength: Strengthening the muscles that support your shoulder will help keep your shoulder joint stable. Keeping these muscles strong can relieve shoulder pain and prevent further injury.Flexibility: Stretching the muscles that you strengthen is important for restoring range of motion and preventing injury. Gently stretching after strengthening exercises can help reduce muscle soreness and keep your muscles long and flexible.Target Muscles: The muscle groups targeted in this conditioning program include:

  • Deltoids (front, back and over the shoulder)
  • Trapezius muscles (upper back)
  • Rhomboid muscles (upper back)
  • Teres muscles (supporting the shoulder joint)
  • Supraspinatus (supporting the shoulder joint)
  • Infraspinatus (supporting the shoulder joint)
  • Subscapularis (front of shoulder)
  • Biceps (front of upper arm)
  • Triceps (back of upper arm)

Length of program: This shoulder conditioning program should be continued for 4 to 6 weeks, unless otherwise specified by your doctor or physical therapist. After your recovery, these exercises can be continued as a maintenance program for lifelong protection and health of your shoulders. Performing the exercises two to three days a week will maintain strength and range of motion in your shoulders.

Getting Started

Warmup:Stretch: After the warm-up, do the stretching exercises shown on Page 1 before moving on to the strengthening exercises. When you have completeds the strengthening exercises, repeat the stretching exercises to end the program.

Do not ignore pain: You should not feel pain during an exercise. Talk to your doctor or physical therapist if you have any pain while exercising.

Ask questions: If you are not sure how to do an exercise, or how often to do it, contact your doctor or physical therapist.

1. Pendulum

Main muscles worked: Deltoids, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis

Equipment needed: None

Repetitions: 2 sets of 10
Days Per Week: 5 to 6

Step-by-step directions

  • Lean forward and place one hand on a counter or table for support. Let your other arm hang freely at your side.
  • Gently swing your arm forward and back. Repeat the exercise moving your arm side-to-side, and repeat again in a circular motion.
  • Repeat the entire sequence with the other arm.

Tip: Do not round your back or lock your knees.

2. Crossover Arm Stretch

Main muscles worked: Posterior deltoid
You should feel this stretch at the back of your shoulderEquipment needed: NoneRepetitions: 4 each side
Days Per Week: 5 to 6Step-by-step directions

  • Relax your shoulders and gently pull one arm across your chest as far as possible, holding at your upper arm.
  • Hold the stretch for 30 seconds and then relax for 30 seconds.
  • Repeat with the other arm.

Tip: Do not pull or put pressure on your elbow.

3. Passive Internal Rotation

Main muscles worked: Subscapularis
You should feel this stretch at the front of your shoulderEquipment needed: Light stick, such as a yardstickRepetitions: 4 each side
Days Per Week: 5 to 6Step-by-step directions

  • Hold a stick behind your back with one hand, and lightly grasp the other end of the stick with your other hand.
  • Pull the stick horizontally as shown so that your shoulder is passively stretched to the point of feeling a pull without pain.
  • Hold for 30 seconds and then relax for 30 seconds.
  • Repeat on the other side.

Tip: Do not lean over or twist to side while pulling the stick.

4. Passive External Rotation

Main muscles worked: Infraspinatus, teres minor
You should feel this stretch in the back of your shoulderEquipment needed: Light stick, such as a yardstickRepetitions: 4 each side
Days Per Week: 5 to 6Step-by-step directions

  • Grasp the stick with one hand and cup the other end of the stick with the other hand.
  • Keep the elbow of the shoulder you are stretching against the side of your body and push the stick horizontally as shown to the point of feeling a pull without pain.
  • Hold for 30 seconds and then relax for 30 seconds.
  • Repeat on the other side.

Tip: Keep your hips facing forward and do not twist.

5. Sleeper Stretch

Main muscles worked: Infraspinatus, teres minor
You should feel this stretch in your outer upper back, behind your shoulderEquipment needed: NoneRepetitions: 4 reps, 3x a day
Days Per Week: DailyStep-by-step directions

  • Lie on your side on a firm, flat surface with the affected shoulder under you and your arm bent, as shown. You can place your head on a pillow for comfort, if needed.
  • Use your unaffected arm to push your other arm down. Stop pressing down when you feel a stretch in the back of your affected shoulder.
  • Hold this position for 30 seconds, then relax your arm for 30 seconds.

Tip: Do not bend your wrist or press down on your wrist.

6. Standing Row

Main muscles worked: Middle and lower trapezius
You should feel this exercise at the back of your shoulder and into your upper backEquipment needed: Use an elastic stretch band of comfortable resistance. As the exercise becomes easier to perform, progress to 3 sets of 12 repetitions. If you have access to a fitness center, this exercise can also be performed on a weight machine. A fitness assistant at your gym can instruct you on how to use the machines safely.Repetitions: 3 sets of 8
Days Per Week: 3Step-by-step directions

  • Make a 3-foot-long loop with the elastic band and tie the ends together. Attach the loop to a doorknob or other stable object.
  • Stand holding the band with your elbow bent and at your side, as shown in the start position.
  • Keep your arm close to your side and slowly pull your elbow straight back.
  • Slowly return to the start position and repeat.

Tip: Squeeze your shoulder blades together as you pull.

7. External Rotation With Arm Abducted 90°

Main muscles worked: Infraspinatus and teres minor
You should feel this exercise at the back of your shoulder and into your upper backEquipment needed: Use an elastic stretch band of comfortable resistance. As the exercise becomes easier to perform, progress to 3 sets of 12 repetitions. If you have access to a fitness center, this exercise can also be performed on a weight machine. A fitness assistant at your gym can instruct you on how to use the machines safely.Repetitions: 3 sets of 8
Days Per Week: 3Step-by-step directions

  • Make a 3-foot-long loop with the elastic band and tie the ends together. Attach the loop to a doorknob or other stable object.
  • Stand holding the band with your elbow bent 90° and raised to shoulder-height, as shown in the start position.
  • Keeping your shoulder and elbow level, slowly raise your hand until it is in line with your head.
  • Slowly return to the start position and repeat.

Tip: Make sure your elbow stays in line with your shoulder.

8. Internal Rotation

Main muscles worked: Pectoralis, subscapularis
You should feel this exercise at your chest and shoulderEquipment needed: Use an elastic stretch band of comfortable resistance. As the exercise becomes easier to perform, progress to 3 sets of 12 repetitions. If you have access to a fitness center, this exercise can also be performed on a weight machine. A fitness assistant at your gym can instruct you on how to use the machines safely.Repetitions: 3 sets of 8
Days Per Week: 3Step-by-step directions

  • Make a 3-foot-long loop with the elastic band and tie the ends together. Attach the loop to a doorknob or other stable object.
  • Stand holding the band with your elbow bent and at your side, as shown in the start position.
  • Keep your elbow close to your side and bring your arm across your body.
  • Slowly return to the start position and repeat.

Tip: Keep your elbow pressed into your side.

9. External Rotation

Main muscles worked: Infraspinatus, teres minor, posterior deltoid
You should feel this stretch in the back of your shoulder and upper backEquipment needed: Use an elastic stretch band of comfortable resistance. As the exercise becomes easier to perform, progress to 3 sets of 12 repetitions. If you have access to a fitness center, this exercise can also be performed on a weight machine. A fitness assistant at your gym can instruct you on how to use the machines safely.Repetitions: 3 sets of 8
Days Per Week: 3Step-by-step directions

  • Make a 3-foot-long loop with the elastic band and tie the ends together.
  • Attach the loop to a doorknob or other stable object.
  • Stand holding the band with your elbow bent and at your side, as shown in the start position.
  • Keeping your elbow close to your side, slowly rotate your arm outward.
  • Slowly return to the start position and repeat.

Tip: Squeeze your shoulder blades together when you pull your elbow back.

10. Elbow Flexion

Main muscles worked: Biceps
You should feel this exercise at the front of your upper armEquipment needed: Begin with a weight that allows 3 sets of 8 repetitions and progress to 3 sets of 12 repetitions. As the exercise becomes easier, add weight in 1-pound increments to a maximum of 5 pounds. Each time you increase the weight, start again at 3 sets of 8 repetitions.Repetitions: 3 sets of 8
Days Per Week: 3Step-by-step directions

  • Stand tall with your weight evenly distributed over both feet.
  • Keep your elbow close to your side and slowly bring the weight up toward your shoulder as shown.
  • Hold for 2 seconds.
  • Slowly return to the starting position and repeat.

Tip: Do not do the exercise too quickly or swing your arm.

11. Elbow Extension

Main muscles worked: Triceps
You should feel this exercise at the back of your upper armEquipment needed: Begin with a weight that allows 3 sets of 8 repetitions and progress to 3 sets of 12 repetitions. As the exercise becomes easier, add weight in 1-pound increments to a maximum of 5 pounds. Each time you increase the weight, start again at 3 sets of 8 repetitions.Repetitions: 3 sets of 8
Days Per Week: 3Step-by-step directions

  • Stand tall with your weight evenly distributed over both feet.
  • Raise your arm and bend your elbow with the weight behind your head.
  • Support your arm by placing your opposite hand on your upper arm.
  • Slowly straighten your elbow and bring the weight overhead.
  • Hold for 2 seconds.
  • Slowly lower your arm back down behind your head and repeat.

Tip: Keep your abdominal muscles tight and do not arch your back.

12. Trapezius Strengthening

Main muscles worked: Middle and posterior deltoid, supraspinatus, middle trapezius
You should feel this exercise at the back of your shoulder and into your upper backEquipment needed: Begin with a light enough weight to allow 3 to 4 sets of 20 repetitions without pain. As the exercise becomes easier to perform, add 2 to 3 pounds of weight, but do fewer repetitions. Progress to 3 sets of 15 repetitions at each weight increment, with the maximum weight approximately 5 to 7 pounds.Repetitions: 3 sets of 20
Days Per Week: 3 to 5Step-by-step directions

  • Place your knee on a bench or chair and lean forward so that your hand reaches the bench and helps support your weight. Your other hand is at your side, palm facing your body.
  • Slowly raise your arm, rotating your hand to the thumbs-up position and stopping when your hand is shoulder height, with your arm parallel to the floor.
  • Slowly lower your arm to the original position to a count of 5.

Tip: Use a weight that makes the last few repetitions difficult, but pain-free.

13. Scapula Setting

Main muscles worked: Middle trapezius, serratus
You should feel this exercise in your upper back, at your shoulder bladeEquipment needed: NoneRepetitions: 10
Days Per Week: 3Step-by-step directions

  • Lie on your stomach with your arms by your sides.
  • Place a pillow under your forehead for comfort, if required.
  • Gently draw your shoulder blades together and down your back as far as possible.
  • Ease about halfway off from this position and hold for 10 seconds.
  • Relax and repeat 10 times.

Tip: Do not tense up in your neck.

14. Scapular Retraction/Protraction

Main muscles worked: Middle trapezius, serratus
You should feel this exercise in your upper back at your shoulder bladeEquipment needed: Begin with a weight that allows 2 sets of 8 to 10 repetitions and progress to 3 sets of 15 repetitions. As the exercise becomes easier, add weight in 1-pound increments to a maximum of 5 pounds. Each time you increase the weight, start again at 2 sets of 8 to 10 repetitions.Repetitions: 2 sets of 10
Days Per Week: 3Step-by-step directions

  • Lie on your stomach on a table or bed with your injured arm hanging over the side.
  • Keep your elbow straight and lift the weight slowly by squeezing your shoulder blade toward the opposite side as far as possible.
  • Return slowly to the starting position and repeat.

Tip: Do not shrug your shoulder toward your ear.

15. Bent-Over Horizontal Abduction

Main muscles worked: Middle and lower trapezius, Infraspinatus, teres minor, posterior deltoid
You should feel this exercise at the back of your shoulder and into your upper backEquipment needed: Begin with a weight that allows 3 sets of 8 repetitions and progress to 3 sets of 12 repetitions. As the exercise becomes easier, add weight in 1-pound increments to a maximum of 5 pounds. Each time you increase the weight, start again at 3 sets of 8 repetitions.Repetitions: 3 sets of 8
Days Per Week: 3Step-by-step directions

  • Lie on your stomach on a table or bed with your injured arm hanging over the side.
  • Keep your arm straight and slowly raise it up to eye level.
  • Slowly lower it back to the starting position and repeat.

Tip: Control the movement as you lower the weight.

16. Internal and External Rotation

Main muscles worked: Internal rotation: anterior deltoid, pectoralis, subscapularis, latissimus.
External rotation: posterior deltoid, infraspinatus, teres minor
You should feel this exercise in the front and back of your shoulder, your chest, and upper backEquipment needed: Begin with a light enough weight to allow 3 to 4 sets of 20 repetitions without pain. As the exercise becomes easier to perform, add 2 to 3 pounds of weight, but do fewer repetitions. Progress to 3 sets of 15 repetitions at each weight increment, with the maximum weight approximately 5 to 7 pounds.Repetitions: 3 to 4 sets of 20
Days Per Week: 3 to 5Step-by-step directions

  • Lie on your back on a flat surface.
  • Extend your arm straight out from the shoulder and bend the elbow 90° so that your fingers are pointed up.
  • Keeping your elbow bent and on the floor, slowly move your arm in the arc shown. Bring your elbow down to a 45° angle if you experience pain at 90°.

Tip: Use a weight that makes the last few repetitions difficult, but pain-free.

17. External Rotation

Main muscles worked: Infraspinatus, teres minor, posterior deltoid
You should feel this stretch in the back of your shoulder and upper backEquipment needed: Begin with weights that allow 2 sets of 8 to 10 repetitions (approximately 1 to 2 pounds), and progress to 3 sets of 5 repetitions. As the exercise becomes easier, add weight in 1-pound increments to a maximum of 5 pounds. Each time you increase the weight, start again at 2 sets of 8 to 10 repetitions.Repetitions: 2 sets of 10
Days Per Week: 3Step-by-step directions

  • Lie on your side on a firm, flat surface with your unaffected arm under you, cradling your head.
  • Hold your injured arm against your side as shown, with your elbow bent at a 90° angle.
  • Keep your elbow against your side and slowly rotate your arm at the shoulder, raising the weight to a vertical position.
  • Slowly lower the weight to the starting position to a count of 5.

Tip: Do not let your body roll back as you raise the weight.

18. Internal Rotation

Main muscles worked: Subscapularis, teres major
You should feel this stretch in the front of your shoulderEquipment needed: Begin with weights that allow 2 sets of 8 to 10 repetitions (approximately 1 to 2 pounds), and progress to 3 sets of 5 repetitions. As the exercise becomes easier, add weight in 1-pound increments to a maximum of 5 pounds. Each time you increase the weight, start again at 2 sets of 8 to 10 repetitions.Repetitions: 2 sets of 10
Days Per Week: 3Step-by-step directions

  • Lie on a firm, flat surface on the side of your affected arm.
  • Place a pillow or folded cloth under your head to keep your spine straight.
  • Hold your injured arm against your side as shown, with your elbow bent at a 90° angle.
  • Keep your elbow bent and against your body and slowly rotate your arm at the shoulder, raising the weight to a vertical position.
  • Slowly lower the weight to the starting position.

Tip: Do not let your body roll back as you raise the weight.

Alternative Methods to Help Manage Pain After Orthopaedic Surgery

Alternative Methods to Help Manage Pain After Orthopaedic Surgery

Article Featured on AAOS

After orthopaedic surgery, your doctors and nurses will make every effort to control your pain. While you should expect to feel some discomfort, advancements in pain control now make it easier for your doctor to manage and relieve pain.

Surgeons and their patients are increasingly using alternative methods, such as relaxation techniques and acupuncture, to supplement conventional medicine. A combined approach to pain management is often the best option because it allows the surgeon to tailor pain control methods to each individual patient.

This article focuses on alternative approaches your doctor may recommend for pain management.

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

In transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) a special device transmits low-level electrical charges into the area of the body that is in pain.

A TENS system consists of a small, battery-powered machine connected by wires to a pair of electrodes. The two electrodes are connected to your skin near the source of pain or at a pressure point. A mild electrical current travels through your skin and along your nerve fibers which may cause a warm, tingling sensation. A typical TENS session lasts anywhere from 5 to 15 minutes.

Many studies have found that TENS is useful in easing pain after surgery, as well as pain related to injuries, such as fractures and sprains. TENS may also be helpful for some chronic pain conditions, particularly low back pain. TENS is generally considered safe. However, its routine use is not recommended.

There is also an acupuncture version of TENS in which the electrical impulses are sent through acupuncture needles instead of electrode pads. This form of TENS is called “electro-acupuncture” or percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS).

How TENS Works

There are several ways TENS is thought to relieve pain:

Gate Control Theory. In order for you to feel pain, the sensation must travel through a “gate” to get to the brain. Normally, the pain is allowed to flow freely through the gate because it (pain) is the only sensation trying to get through. However, if the gate becomes flooded with another type of sensation (in this case, an electric current), the gate will reach capacity and no longer have room for the underlying pain sensation to get through.

Release of Endogenous Opiates. Some scientists believe that TENS works by forcing certain nerve cells to release more of the body’s natural pain killers called “endorphins.” This causes you to feel less pain.

Central Inhibitory Effect. TENS may also work by changing the way your brain perceives pain.

When to Avoid TENS

TENS might not work as well if your pain is caused by mental or emotional problems. It also does not work as well if you suffer from drug addiction.

TENS should not be used if you have any of the following conditions:

  • Implanted medical device (defibrillator or pacemaker)
  • Pregnancy
  • Epilepsy
  • Mental retardation
  • Undiagnosed pain

Continuous Passive Motion

Continuous passive motion (CPM) is a technique in which your joint is moved constantly in a mechanical splint to prevent stiffness and increase range of motion. A CPM machine moves your joint for you without requiring you to exert any effort.

Medical evidence indicates that in many cases immobilization increases pain after surgery. As a result, early motion has been applied to many orthopaedic problems. CPM is thought to be most effective in the rehabilitation treatment of:

  • Cartilage damage
  • A bacterial infection inside a joint
  • A fracture around a joint after it has been fixed with internal devices

CPM is believed to enhance the nutrition of your joint, discourage the formation of scar tissue, and prevent the abnormal shortening of the muscles surrounding your joints.

CPM machine

This CPM machine cradles the lower leg and gently moves it.

If you can already move — either actively or passively — without CPM, then using the device will not be beneficial. CPM is not a substitute for working with an experienced physical therapist who is trained to provide both active and passive motion exercises. If your doctor recommends CPM, you will also be monitored by a physical therapist.

The most important time to use a CPM device seems to be in the first 2 to 7 days after surgery, for about 4 to 6 hours every day.

Initially, CPM was only used in hospitals or outpatient physical therapy clinics, but today, CPM units can be purchased for use at home.

Acupuncture

When acupuncture is combined with traditional pain relief methods, it may be helpful for some types of chronic pain:

  • Low back pain
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Aching muscle pain (knots)
  • Tennis elbow
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Stroke rehabilitation

Acupuncture points tend to be areas of your skin that contain relatively large amounts of intersecting nerve endings that feed into your muscles or bones. Some scientists believe that these “acupoints” possess special electrical characteristics that can be manipulated using painless hair-thin needles.

A typical acupuncture procedure lasts for about 30 minutes. Treatments are used to relieve local pain and swelling, as well as to provide a more general feeling of relaxation due to the release of your body’s natural painkillers, called endorphins.

Because each acupoint is responsible for producing effects in different areas of the body, it is important to be clear with your provider about the specific area and intensity of your pain. The acupuncturist can then target the correct acupoint.

Psychological Methods

Psychological methods can be effective as an additional treatment for pain control. These methods can reduce or eliminate the need for medication. Some of oldest and best documented psychological methods include:

  • Relaxation techniques
  • Guided imagery
  • Medical hypnosis

In 18 medical research studies, medical hypnosis, guided imagery, or relaxation techniques were used to improve recovery after surgery. In 16 of the studies (4 were orthopaedic surgeries), researchers documented improvements in both the physical and emotional recoveries of the patients.

These results demonstrated that psychological methods are effective as an additional treatment for pain management, postsurgical recovery (physical and emotional), and orthopaedic rehabilitation.

These methods appear to have potential in orthopaedic surgery that could reduce pain, enhance treatment outcomes, and contain or even reduce medical costs.

Knee Replacement Surgery for Arthritis

What Can I Do After Knee Replacement Surgery? When to Return to Normal Activity

Article Featured on AAOS

After having a knee replacement, you may expect your lifestyle to be a lot like it was before surgery— but without the pain. In many ways, you are right, but returning to your everyday activities takes time. Being an active participant in the healing process can help you get there sooner and ensure a more successful outcome.

Even though you will be able to resume most activities, you may want to avoid doing things that place excessive stress on your “new” knee, such as participating in high-impact sports like jogging. The suggestions here will help you enjoy your new knee while you safely resume your daily activities.

Hospital Discharge

Your hospital stay will typically last from 1 to 4 days, depending on the speed of your recovery. If your knee replacement is performed on an outpatient basis, you will go home on the same day as surgery.

Before you are discharged from the hospital, you will need to accomplish several goals, such as:

  • Getting in and out of bed by yourself.
  • Having acceptable pain control.
  • Being able to eat, drink, and use the bathroom.
  • Walking with an assistive device (a cane, walker, or crutches) on a level surface and being able to climb up and down two or three stairs.
  • Being able to perform the prescribed home exercises.
  • Understanding any knee precautions you may have been given to prevent injury and ensure proper healing.

If you are not able to accomplish these goals, it may be unsafe for you to go directly home after discharge. If this is the case, you may be temporarily transferred to a rehabilitation or skilled nursing center.

When you are discharged, your healthcare team will provide you with information to support your recovery at home. Although the complication rate after total knee replacement is low, when complications occur they can prolong or limit full recovery. Hospital staff will discuss possible complications, and review with you the warning signs of an infection or a blood clot.

Warning Signs of Infection

  • Persistent fever (higher than 100 degrees)
  • Shaking chills
  • Increasing redness, tenderness or swelling of your wound
  • Drainage of your wound
  • Increasing pain with both activity and rest

Warning Signs of a Blood Clot

  • Pain in your leg or calf unrelated to your incision
  • Tenderness or redness above or below your knee
  • Increasing swelling of your calf, ankle or foot

In very rare cases, a blood clot may travel to your lungs and become life-threatening. Signs that a blood clot has traveled to your lungs include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Sudden onset of chest pain
  • Localized chest pain with coughing

Notify your doctor if you develop any of the above signs.

Recovery at Home

You will need some help at home for several days to several weeks after discharge. Before your surgery, arrange for a friend, family member or caregiver to provide help at home.

Preparing Your Home

The following tips can make your homecoming more comfortable, and can be addressed before your surgery:

  • Rearrange furniture so you can maneuver with a cane, walker, or crutches. You may temporarily change rooms (make the living room your bedroom, for example) to avoid using the stairs.
Home recovery center

Prepare a “recovery center” by placing items that you use frequently within easy reach.

  • Remove any throw rugs or area rugs that could cause you to slip. Securely fasten electrical cords around the perimeter of the room.
  • Get a good chair—one that is firm with a higher-than-average seat and has a footstool for intermittent leg elevation.
  • Install a shower chair, gripping bar, and raised toilet seat in the bathroom.
  • Use assistive devices such as a long-handled shoehorn, a long-handled sponge, and a grabbing tool or reacher to avoid bending over too far.

Wound Care

During your recovery at home, follow these guidelines to take care of your wound and prevent infection:

  • Keep the wound area clean and dry. A dressing will be applied in the hospital and should be changed as often as directed by your doctor. Ask for instructions on how to change the dressing before you leave the hospital.
  • Follow your doctor’s instructions on how long to wait before you shower or bathe.
  • Notify your doctor immediately if the wound appears red or begins to drain. This could be a sign of infection.

Swelling

You may have moderate to severe swelling in the first few days or weeks after surgery. You may have mild to moderate swelling for about 3 to 6 months after surgery. To reduce swelling, elevate your leg slightly and apply ice. Wearing compression stockings may also help reduce swelling. Notify your doctor if you experience new or severe swelling, since this may be the warning sign of a blood clot.

Medication

Take all medications as directed by your doctor. Home medications may include opioid and non-opioid pain pills, oral or injectable blood thinners, stool softeners, and anti-nausea medications.

Be sure to talk to your doctor about all your medications—even over-the-counter drugs, supplements and vitamins. Your doctor will tell you which over-the-counter medicines are safe to take while using prescription pain medication.

It is especially important to prevent any bacterial infections from developing in your artificial joint. Some patients with special circumstances may be required to take antibiotics prior to dental work to help prevent infection. Ask your doctor if you should take antibiotics before dental work. You may also wish to carry a medical alert card so that, if an emergency arises, medical personnel will know that you have an artificial joint.

Diet

By the time you go home from the hospital, you should be eating a normal diet. Your doctor may recommend that you take iron and vitamin supplements. You may also be advised to avoid supplements that include vitamin K and foods rich in vitamin K if you taking the blood thinner medication warfarin (Coumadin). Foods rich in vitamin K include broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, liver, green beans, garbanzo beans, lentils, soybeans, soybean oil, spinach, kale, lettuce, turnip greens, cabbage, and onions.

Continue to drink plenty of fluids and avoid alcohol. You should continue to watch your weight to avoid putting more stress on the joint.

Resuming Normal Activities

Once you get home, you should stay active. The key is to not do too much, too soon. While you can expect some good days and some bad days, you should notice a gradual improvement over time. Generally, the following guidelines will apply:

Driving

In most cases, it is safe to resume driving when you are no longer taking opioid pain medication, and when your strength and reflexes have returned to a more normal state. Your doctor will help you determine when it is safe to resume driving.

Sexual Activity

Please consult your doctor about how soon you can safely resume sexual activity. Depending on your condition, you may be able to resume sexual activity within several weeks after surgery.

Sleeping Positions

You can safely sleep on your back, on either side, or on your stomach.

Return to Work

Depending on the type of activities you do on the job and the speed of your recovery, it may take from several days to several weeks before you are able to return to work. Your doctor will advise you when it is safe to resume your normal work activities.

Sports and Exercise

Continue to do the exercises prescribed by your physical therapist for at least 2 months after surgery. In some cases, your doctor may recommend riding a stationary bicycle to help maintain muscle tone and keep your knee flexible. When riding, try to achieve the maximum degree of bending and straightening possible.

As soon as your doctor gives you the go-ahead, you can return to many of the sports activities you enjoyed before your knee replacement.

  • Walk as much as you would like, but remember that walking is no substitute for the exercises prescribed by your doctor and physical therapist.
  • Swimming is an excellent low-impact activity after a total knee replacement; you can begin swimming as soon as the wound is sufficiently healed. Your doctor will let you know when you can begin.
  • In general, lower impact fitness activities such as golfing, bicycling, and light tennis will help increase the longevity of your knee and are preferable over high-impact activities such as jogging, racquetball and skiing.

Air Travel

Pressure changes and immobility may cause your operated leg to swell, especially if it is just healing. Ask your doctor before you travel on an airplane. When going through security, be aware that the sensitivity of metal detectors varies and your artificial joint may cause an alarm. Tell the screener about your artificial joint before going through the metal detector.


New Mexico Orthopaedics is a multi-disciplinary orthopaedic clinic located in Albuquerque New Mexico. We have multiple physical therapy clinics located throughout the Albuquerque metro area.

New Mexico Orthopaedics offers a full spectrum of services related to orthopaedic care and our expertise ranges from acute conditions such as sports injuries and fractures to prolonged, chronic care diagnoses, including total joint replacement and spinal disorders.

Because our team of highly-trained physicians specialize in various aspects of the musculoskeletal system, our practice has the capacity to treat any orthopaedic condition, and offer related support services, such as physical therapy, WorkLink and much more.

If you need orthopedic care in Albuquerque New Mexico contact New Mexico Orthopaedics at 505-724-4300.